*Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (1949; Munich DE, 80 institutes; staff 25,000;

The biggest applied science society in Europe runs around 80 state funded research institutes mostly in Germany. The institutes conduct research in a vast number of areas predominantly physics, engineering and other STEM subjects. They state that their “research efforts are geared entirely to people’s needs: health, security, communication, energy and the environment.” The focus on applied science creates an output of improved applications with better efficiency and higher productivity. While sustainability and security are only a small part of their work, there are a few notable Fraunhofer Institutes for


  • Videos on research topics;
  • A library of reports, biyearly Fraunhofer Magazine, research papers and brochures
  • A publication database thousands of papers and reports

Leadership: Prof. Dr. Reimund Neugebauer (President)

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