meetings in 1992 & 2012 “Rio+20” follow-up
(2012, Rio de Janeiro; www.uncsd2012.org).
The “Rio+20” Earth Summit, held as a 20-year follow-up to the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in 1992, with participation by 172 governments, representatives of some 2400 NGOs, and 17,000 people at the parallel NGO “Glob al Forum”. The first Rio Summit resulted in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21, and Forest Principles, as well as conventions on biological diversity, climate change, and desertification. The 2012 Summit proposed a “Green Economy” (beyond GDP, addressing inequality, food security, managing natural capital, etc.) and discussed “7 Critical Issues” (jobs, energy, cities, food, water, oceans, and disasters). A follow-up “Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform” website is available at http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org.