International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund (1945; Washington; ~2,700 staff;

Founded as a framework for economic cooperation to avoid devaluations that contributed to the Great Depression, IMF now focuses on sustainable economic growth; 1,420 documents mention “sustainability”; books on carbon taxes and pricing, energy subsidy reform, fiscal policy and climate change


  • A library of reports, research papers, policy papers, etc.
  • A database of economic and other relevant Data
  • Usually bi-annual World Economic Outlook Reports that analyses “global economic developments during the near and medium term.”
  • Annual Global Financial Stability Report (October 2019, 109p.) – Identifies “the current key vulnerabilities in the global financial system as the rise in corporate debt burdens, increasing holdings of riskier and more illiquid assets by institutional investors, and growing reliance on external borrowing by emerging and frontier market economies.”
    • Fiscal Policies for Paris Climate Strategies—from Principle to Practice (May 2019, 109p.) – Discusses “the role of, and provides practical country-level guidance on, fiscal policies for implementing climate strategies using a unique and transparent tool laying out trade-offs among policy options.”
    • Long-Term Macroeconomic Effects of Climate Change: A Cross-Country Analysis (October 2019, 59p.) – A study of the long-term impacts of climate change on economic activity” based on a panel data set of 174 countries over the years 1960 to 2014. It is based on “using a stochastic growth model where labor productivity is affected by country-specific climate variables—defined as deviations of temperature and precipitation from their historical norms.”

Leadership: Kristalina Georgieva (Managing Director)
Budget: ~$661bn (Quotas)

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